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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

what is vertigo and what causes it

"Vertigo is a disorder characterized by the sensation of spinning around. This condition can be caused by diseases, such as labyrinthitis, vestibular nuritis and cholesteatoma."

Thedoctormedical , united states- Have you ever felt suddenly dizzy as if everything around you was spinning, even though nothing was happening? If you have experienced it, then you need to be vigilant because this can be a symptom of vertigo. Symptoms of vertigo can be mild and do not interfere with activities. However, some people can also experience vertigo that is so severe that it interferes with daily activities.

Recognize Vertigo Symptoms
Vertigo can attack humans with various reactions, from mild dizziness that appears periodically to severe and lasts long enough to even make the sufferer unable to carry out activities.

Vertigo is described as feeling dizzy like spinning, the head feels tilted, feels swaying, unbalanced, and feels like it is being pulled in one direction. Other symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abnormal or jerking eye movements (nystagmus), headaches, sweating, and a ringing in the ears or hearing loss. These symptoms may last from a few minutes to several hours or more and may come and go.

Causes of Vertigo

A variety of conditions can cause a person to experience vertigo, which usually involves an imbalance in the inner ear or a problem with the central nervous system (CNS). There are conditions that cause vertigo, including:

.  Labyrinthitis . This disorder occurs when an infection causes inflammation of the labyrinth of the inner ear, precisely in this area is the vestibulocochlear nerve. These nerves send information to the brain about head movement, position and sound. In addition to dizziness with vertigo, people with labyrinthitis can also experience hearing loss, tinnitus, headaches, earaches, and vision changes.

.  Vestibular Neuritis. Infection of the vestibular nerve is called vestibular neuritis. This condition is similar to labyrinthitis, but does not affect a person's hearing. Vestibular neuritis causes vertigo which may accompany blurred vision, severe nausea, or a feeling of being off balance.

.  Cholesteatoma. These noncancerous skin growths develop in the middle ear, usually due to repeated infections. When they grow behind the eardrum, they can damage the bony structures of the middle ear, causing hearing loss and dizziness.

.  Ménière's disease . This disease causes a buildup of fluid in the inner ear, which can cause vertigo attacks with ringing in the ears and hearing loss. This condition is prone to occur in people with a range between the ages of 40 and 60 years. The exact cause is unclear, but experts think that the condition stems from narrowed arteries, a viral infection, or an autoimmune reaction. There may also be a genetic component to it.

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV). The inner ear contains structures called otolith organs, which contain fluid and crystalline particles of calcium carbonate. Within the BPPV, these crystals become dislodged and fall into a semicircular canal. Each falling crystal touches sensory hair cells in the cupula of the semicircular canal during movement. As a result, the brain receives inaccurate information about one's position, and one becomes dizzy. People usually experience periods of vertigo that last less than 60 seconds, but nausea and other symptoms may also occur.

While there are several other factors that can cause vertigo, including:

migraine headaches;
head injury ;
ear surgery;
Perilymphatic fistula, occurs when inner ear fluid leaks into the middle ear due to a tear in one of the two membranes between the middle ear and inner ear;
Herpes zoster that occurs in or around the ear (herpes zoster oticus);
Otosclerosis, when a problem with the growth of the middle ear bones causes hearing loss;

ataxia, which causes muscle weakness;
Stroke or transient ischemic attack, which is sometimes called a mini- stroke ;
Diseases of the cerebellum or brainstem;
acoustic neuroma, which is a benign growth that develops on the vestibulocochlear nerve near the inner ear;
Multiple sclerosis;
Too long a rest and the use of some drugs can also cause vertigo.
Those are some signs and causes of vertigo. If you experience the symptoms, there's nothing wrong with going to the hospital immediately to get the right treatment.


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