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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

sign of pregnancy

"The characteristics of pregnancy in the first week that you need to pay attention to are the appearance of a feeling of bloating, stomach cramps accompanied by blood spots, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and changes in the breasts."

Thedoctormedical , united states– The characteristics of being pregnant in the first week often don't feel significant, so many expectant mothers don't realize it. So, so that mothers don't miss the moment of their little one's presence in the stomach, know the signs of the first week of pregnancy.

This may sound strange to expectant mothers, but the first week of pregnancy is actually not happening. This is because pregnancy is counted for 40 weeks from the first day of the last menstruation (HPHT).

A new pregnancy occurs only when the body releases an egg from the ovary which usually occurs between the end of the 2nd week or the beginning of the 3rd week.

Know the Signs of Pregnancy or the Characteristics of Pregnancy
The ovulation cycle which usually occurs on the 13th to 20th day after HPHT will determine the date of conception. Ovulation is also affected by how long a woman's menstrual cycle is.

The average woman has a menstrual cycle of about 28 days, but some women have different cycles. So, this is the importance of knowing ovulation and fertile periods .

To find out your menstrual cycle, you can record your menstrual cycle for several months, measure your basal body temperature (body temperature when you just wake up in the morning) before ovulation, or observe the texture of vaginal fluid, which looks clearer and smoother. You can also use practical methods, namely by using an ovulation test kit.

Apart from not being able to menstruate, the symptoms of the first week of pregnancy are actually similar to the symptoms of the first week of the menstrual cycle. The following are signs of pregnancy or signs of being pregnant in the first week:

1. Flatulence

Almost similar to the signs at the beginning of the menstrual cycle, signs of pregnancy in the first week also cause you to experience flatulence.

This occurs due to hormonal changes that make the digestive system slower in carrying out its processes, thus triggering flatulence. Usually, symptoms of bloating will come together with constipation or constipation.

2. Nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting in the first week of pregnancy, namely morning sickness . Although known as morning sickness , nausea and vomiting can occur at any time.

Morning sickness generally occurs from the first week to the 9th week. Entering the second trimester, usually these pregnancy characteristics will gradually disappear.

3. Fatigue

Fatigue is a complaint that pregnant women often feel in the first week. This occurs due to increased levels of the hormone progesterone, causing mothers to experience fatigue and sleepiness throughout pregnancy.

To relieve these pregnant characteristics, mothers should get more rest time and make sure the bedroom is always comfortable for resting. Make sure you also manage stress levels well.

4. Abdominal cramps along with blood spots are a sign of pregnancy

This condition is also one of the characteristics of being pregnant in the first week. These symptoms will usually appear together with blood spots. This can happen because there is a process of implantation of the fetus into the uterus.

Spotting that occurs due to implantation usually has a smaller amount than menstruation, has a pink to brown color, abdominal cramps are also lighter than menstruation, and blood spots that come out no more than 3 days.

Immediately check your health condition if you experience blood spots and stomach cramps for more than 3 days and feel that they are getting worse.

5. Changes in the breasts can be a sign of pregnancy

The breasts will experience changes in the first week of pregnancy by looking bigger. In addition, the breasts feel softer and smoother. This happens because of hormonal changes in the body of pregnant women.

Not only on the breast skin, changes also occur in the areola which becomes darker and enlarges. Nipples are also larger than normal.

Those are some of the characteristics of being pregnant in the first week. Apart from these main signs, there are several other signs of pregnancy in the first week such as increased urination, joint and muscle pain, and mood swings.


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