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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

Main Factors of HIV Transmission that are Rarely Aware

"AIDS is still a serious health problem with a high risk of death. It is very important to know what are the main factors for HIV transmission so that we can reduce the death rate from this disease"

Thedoctormedical - united states– Based on data from the World Health Organization (WHO), there are as many as 38.4 million people worldwide infected with the HIV virus in 2021. At least, as many as 650 thousand people have lost their lives due to HIV transmission for which there is no cure to date.

HIV is a virus that damages the immune system by infecting and destroying CD4 cells (a type of white blood cell). The more CD4 cells destroyed, the weaker the immune system. As a result, a person will be more susceptible to various diseases.

However, you need to pay attention that HIV is different from AIDS. HIV is the virus. Meanwhile, an HIV infection that does not receive immediate treatment can develop into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a serious and life-threatening disease.

In short, AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. The reason is, at this stage, the body's ability to fight various infections and diseases has completely disappeared.

The Main Factors of HIV Transmission that Need to Watch Out for
Until now, sexual intercourse is still the most common way of transmitting HIV. In fact, in some cases, the virus that causes AIDS is transmitted through oral sex if there are sores in the sufferer's mouth. In addition, transmission can also occur due to fluids from the vagina or penis.

However, the HIV virus is not only transmitted through sexual contact. There are several other ways of transmitting HIV that you need to be aware of, including:

1. Blood transfusion

Not only vaginal fluids and semen, the HIV virus can also be transmitted through blood by means of transfusion. This is why medical staff always carry out strict HIV tests for everyone who wants to donate blood. This test functions to ensure that the donor is in good health and does not have infectious health problems. These include AIDS, hepatitis B, and C.

2. Pregnancy and breast milk

Pregnant or breastfeeding women who have HIV need to be extra vigilant. This is because pregnant women can transmit the HIV virus to the fetus through the placenta. Not only that, HIV transmission can also occur from breast milk to mothers who are breastfeeding.

3. Transmission of HIV from needles

Sharing needles with people living with HIV is a fairly common way of transmitting HIV besides sexual contact. For example, the use of needles in people who abuse drugs.

Not only that, someone who injects drugs, steroids, or hormones can also be infected with the HIV virus if they share needles. This is because there is blood still attached to the syringe from a previous HIV-infected user.

4. Tattoo tool

Although it is fun for some people, it turns out that tattoo art also holds its own dangers. This is because HIV transmission can also occur through needles found in tattoo makers.

So, if you want to get a tattoo, then you should choose carefully where to get a quality tattoo. In addition, make sure the tattoo artist uses a sterile tool. Not without reason, tattoo tools that are used interchangeably could be a medium for the spread of the HIV virus.

5. HIV transmission from organ transplants

Even though it aims to save someone's life, organ transplantation is very risky with HIV transmission. This is because donor recipients who receive organs from donors who are already infected with the HIV virus, can be infected with the virus through the exchange of fluids in these organs.

6. Work in a health facility or service

Health workers also have a risk of being infected with the HIV virus. This is because they very often deal with patient blood or needles which can be a medium of transmission. However, the risk is very small because of course medical personnel always use personal protective equipment, such as gloves and masks.

Those are some of the main factors for HIV transmission that you need to be aware of. However, you don't need to worry because the virus cannot be transmitted through daily physical contact, for example shaking hands, hugging, kissing, or sharing personal items. In addition, the virus is also not transmitted from urine, saliva and blood.

Preventing HIV Transmission by Staying Away from the Risk Factors
There are several ways you can try to prevent HIV transmission, including:

1. Practice safe sex

Always use a condom every time you have sexual intercourse. Especially if you don't know whether your partner is at risk of contracting HIV or not, and have oral, anal, or vaginal sex.

2. Do not engage in risky sexual behavior

In addition, also avoid various sexual behaviors that risk transmitting the HIV virus. For example, anal sex. Actually, both perpetrators and recipients of anal sex are both at risk of contracting it. Only, anal sex recipients tend to be at a higher risk.

3. Make sure to use a sterile and new needle

The use of needles is very diverse, ranging from piercing, tattooing, injecting drugs and vaccines, to infusions. To avoid HIV transmission, make sure all the needles you use are new and sterile.

4. Do pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

PrEP is a way to prevent HIV transmission by taking drugs that are included in the antiretroviral group. Doctors usually prescribe this drug for groups of people who have a high risk of contracting HIV, such as:

Someone with a partner who is positive for HIV/AIDS.
Risky needle users.
Someone who often has sex without using protection.
People who are sexually active and have had a sexually transmitted disease within the past 6 months.
In fact, the easiest way to prevent HIV transmission is to stay away from things that increase the risk of transmission. Avoid changing partners during intercourse, and do health screening if necessary.


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