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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

function of the Human Respiratory Organs

“Every system in the body has an important role in supporting life, including the respiratory system. If the organs in the respiratory system don't work properly, a person will experience respiratory problems, even problems with other bodily functions."

Thedoctormedical, united states – The human respiratory system has several important organs involved. All of them play an important role in supporting the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Thanks to this organ, you can breathe every day.

A person has a normal respiratory rate if he breathes at least 12 to 20 times every minute when resting and occurs continuously or continuously.

Organs in the Human Respiratory System and Their Functions

Breathing is the process of taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. This process has another designation of the respiratory system. You need to understand that smooth breathing is the result of the work of various organs and tissues in this system.

The respiratory system in humans is composed of two main parts, namely the upper and lower parts. The following is an explanation of each of these parts and the respiratory organs in them:

1. Upper respiratory system

The upper respiratory system in humans is composed of several organs, including:

The nose, which is composed of mucous membranes and fine hairs. Its function is to filter dust and dirt that enters the nasal cavity.
Sinuses, air-filled cavities along the sides of the nose. This section functions to regulate the temperature and humidity of the air you breathe. This section also often experiences a medical condition called sinusitis .
Pharynx, an organ in the respiratory system whose job is to channel air from the nose and mouth to the trachea.
Larynx, part of the small space before the trachea which contains the vocal cords.

2. Lower respiratory system

Furthermore, the organs included in the lower human respiratory system include:

Trachea, is the most important airway leading to the lungs. It is located at the bottom of the larynx.
Bronchus, is a branch of the trachea whose function is to continue air to the lungs. The smallest branches of this section are called bronchioles.
The lungs, which are composed of millions of alveoli. The function of the lungs is to receive air from the bronchioles as well as being a place for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Diaphragm, is the main respiratory muscle that can alternately contract and relax, thus allowing air to keep going in and out of the lungs.
Not only serves as a place for exchanging gas and air, the respiratory system is also responsible for filtering, humidifying, and warming the air you breathe. In fact, this system also helps in the process of smell and speech.

Knowing How the Respiratory Organs Work in Humans
The workings of the human respiratory system certainly involve all respiratory organs. Every organ works together to maximize the gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body.

In simple terms, this is the working mechanism of the human respiratory system:

During the process of inhalation or inhaling, the diaphragm and muscles between the ribs will contract. This will make the chest cavity expand, so that the lungs can expand and air enters.
Then, the air will enter through the mouth or nose and through the particle filtration process by the nose hairs. Then, the air will enter the windpipe or trachea.
From the trachea, air will enter the lungs through the bronchi and bronchioles, which end in the alveoli.
When air reaches the alveoli, the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs. This process takes place in small blood vessels called capillaries.
Oxygen will enter the capillaries, and together with the red blood cells will go to the heart organ to be distributed to all cells and tissues of the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide will enter the capillaries leading to the lung cavity.

After the gas exchange process is complete, the ribs and diaphragm muscles will relax again, as well as the chest cavity. Air with carbon dioxide will come out of the alveoli and go to the bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, then out of the body through the nose.
The human respiratory system may look simple. However, with every breath that you inhale and exhale, there is cooperation and support from all the organs involved. In fact, this process also involves the work of the heart and the role of blood vessels.

Health Problems in the Respiratory System Organs

There are several health problems that commonly occur in the organs of the respiratory system, including:

1. Asthma

Asthma occurs due to inflammation of the respiratory tract. This will make the airways narrow. Some of the causes include exposure to smoke, allergies, cold air, and pollution. Symptoms that appear are shortness of breath, coughing, chest tightness, and wheezing.

2. Flu

Furthermore, the flu that appears due to infection with the influenza virus that attacks the nose, throat, and lung area. This virus spreads and is transmitted from the air, physical contact with sufferers, and objects that have been contaminated.

You can prevent the flu by getting used to a healthy life, such as wearing a mask when leaving the house, always washing your hands, and avoiding crowds and keeping your distance from other people who are sick.

3. Bronchitis

Then, bronchitis occurs because the ducts that carry air to the lungs or bronchial tubes become inflamed. This condition causes the sufferer to experience a cough with phlegm. Not only that, this disease also presents with symptoms of tightness in the chest, yellow or green phlegm, and body fever.

4. Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a health problem that arises due to bacterial, fungal or viral infections. In addition, this disease can also occur due to infection with the corona virus which causes a person to develop COVID-19. Symptoms of pneumonia are coughing, shortness of breath, chills and fever.

5. Lung cancer

Lung cancer is a dangerous type of cancer with a high mortality rate. Not only active smokers, passive smokers can also experience this one cancer. In order to prevent exposure to lung cancer, you must stop smoking and avoid exposure to cigarette smoke as much as possible.

How to Treat Respiratory Disorders?
You need to know that breathing problems are a medical emergency that needs to be treated immediately. Because the causes of this condition can be very diverse and can lead to more dangerous complications.

In order to deal with severe respiratory system problems, the doctor will first stabilize the patient's condition. This includes giving medicine, oxygen, or carrying out resuscitation and installing breathing apparatus according to the patient's condition.

After that, the new doctor finds out what is the cause of respiratory problems by carrying out physical and supporting examinations. For example, doing blood tests, lung function, blood gas analysis, MRI, CT scan, or X-rays.

If you already know what is the cause, the doctor will provide appropriate treatment options and observe the patient's condition so that the problem can be handled properly and does not trigger complications. Treatment includes prescribing drugs, carrying out physiotherapy, to surgery.


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