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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

what is Parkinson's disease

“There are some facts you should know about Parkinson's disease. Starting from the cause of Parkinson's due to damage to the brain's nerve cells, to its cure with three types of therapy.”

Thedoctormedical , united states – Parkinson's disease is a disease of the nervous system that interferes with the body's ability to function. Especially in controlling movement and balance. This disease was discovered by James Parkinson in 1817 and affects about 10-25 people out of every 10,000 people.

This condition can cause a number of symptoms. Examples include tremors, muscle stiffness, and impaired coordination of body movements. So, to raise awareness about this disease, there are a number of Parkinson's facts that you need to know.

7 Facts About Parkinson's Disease

Here are some facts about Parkinson's disease that you need to know:

1. The cause is unknown

Until now, experts do not know what exactly causes Parkinson's. However, experts suspect that this condition may have a link to genetic and environmental components.

Some scientists also believe that viruses can also trigger Parkinson's. In addition, low levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, substances that regulate dopamine, are also associated with Parkinson's.

2. There are a number of factors that can increase the risk

Until now, experts do not know the cause of Parkinson's. Even so, there are several risk factors that have been detected in general. These risk factors are:

Gender. Men are one and a half times more likely to develop Parkinson's than women.
Race. According to research, there is a higher prevalence of Parkinson's in white people compared to black or Asian people. Geographic location may be one of the reasons for the higher risk.
Age. Parkinson's usually appears between the ages of 50 and 60. It only occurs before the age of 40 in about four percent of cases.
Family history. People who have close family members with Parkinson's disease are more likely to develop this disease.
Poison Exposure. Experts believe that exposure to poisons such as carbon disulfide, insecticides, and manganese can increase the risk of Parkinson's disease.
Head injury. People who have had head injuries are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease.

3. Symptoms Not Only Tremor

Symptoms that appear in each person with Parkinson's will vary. However, here are the common symptoms of Parkinson's disease:

Tremors. Parkinson's tremors or tremors generally originate in the hands, including the fingers. Even so, tremors are not always an indication of Parkinson's. Because, there are a number of other conditions that can be the cause.
Slowed movements (bradykinesia). Illness can slow limb movement over time.
Stiff muscles In almost all parts of the body, the muscles will become stiff and tend to be painful.
Impaired posture and balance. Posture will look hunched and have balance problems during activities.
Loss of reflexes. The sufferer will experience a decrease in reflex ability. For example, the reflex to wink, smile, and swing your arms while walking.
Speech changes. The speech changes symptoms that people with Parkinson's disease experience will vary. For example, speaking in a soft tone, the intonation is too fast, or hesitating before speaking.
Writing changes. People with this condition find it difficult to write so that the writing appears smaller.

4. Symptoms are divided into 5 stages

Parkinson's is divided into five stages, each stage has different symptoms and severity, namely:

First stage . At this stage, people with Parkinson's begin to find it difficult to carry out activities, because of symptoms of tremors in one part of the body. Other symptoms of this disease include poor posture, loss of balance, and abnormal facial expressions.
Second stage . Tremor starts to attack other parts of the body and has also started to have difficulty walking and stooped posture. People with Parkinson's at this stage find it difficult to maintain balance and walk.

Third stage . The sufferer is no longer able to walk straight and starts to do things slowly.
Fourth stage . The sufferer's body begins to feel stiff and loses function to carry out all activities.
Fifth stage . The sufferer is no longer able to control his body and cannot move, can only lie down at the risk of being disabled.

5. There Are A Number Of Complications Lurking

Parkinson's disease is not life-threatening.
 However, without proper treatment, Parkinson's disease can reduce quality of life and cause other health problems, such as:

Trouble thinking. People with Parkinson's may experience cognitive problems (dementia) and difficulty thinking. This condition usually occurs in the late stages of Parkinson's disease.
Depression and emotional changes. People with Parkinson's are also at risk for depression, sometimes in the early stages. Apart from depression, sufferers may also experience other emotional changes. For example, such as fear, anxiety, or loss of motivation.
Swallowing problems. In advanced stages, people with Parkinson's may have difficulty swallowing.
Problems chewing and eating. End-stage Parkinson's disease affects the mouth muscles of the sufferer. This condition can make chewing difficulties, choking and malnutrition.
Sleep problems and sleep disturbances. People with Parkinson's disease often have sleep problems, including waking frequently during the night, waking early or falling asleep during the day.
Bladder problems. Parkinson's disease can cause bladder problems, including inability to control urine or difficulty urinating.

6. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms

Until now there is no drug that can completely cure Parkinson's. Therefore, Parkinson's treatment focuses on reducing symptoms and improving the quality of life of sufferers. Here are the treatment options:

Administration of Drugs

Drugs that doctors prescribe function in increasing or replacing dopamine. There are a number of medications that your doctor may prescribe. For example, like carbidopa levodopa, which is a drug that will be converted into dopamine in the brain.

Operation Procedure

The surgical procedure for Parkinson's involves implanting electrodes into certain parts of the brain. This tool will send electricity to the brain, so it can reduce the symptoms of the disease.

7. People with Parkinson's can also undergo 3 types of therapy

Apart from using drugs and surgery, people with Parkinson's can also undergo a number of therapies, namely:

Physiotherapy. This therapy aims to help improve the ability of movement and flexibility of the body of people with Parkinson's. In addition, physiotherapy is also useful for increasing the patient's stamina and ability to carry out his activities.
speech therapy. Doctors may recommend speech therapy if the person with Parkinson's has difficulty speaking and swallowing saliva or food.

Psychotherapy. If a person with Parkinson's disease has depression, their doctor may recommend psychotherapy to help manage their mental condition.

Can CBD Oil Really Cure Parkinson's Disease?

Cannabidiol or CBD oil is a natural compound found in the cannabis plant. These compounds, known as cannabinoids , are thought to help relieve anxiety, reduce pain, and offer neuroprotective properties.

Additionally, their potential benefits to the brain and nervous system have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Especially for people with neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

Even so, CBD has never been used in people with Parkinson's disease in the long term. Studies related to this matter were only carried out several decades ago.

This means that the existing research is of course very limited and requires other supporting studies to prove the effectiveness of CBD oil for Parkinson's disease.


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