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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

what is Menorrhagia

 "Menorrhagia is bleeding that can be so severe that it allows you to change your tampon or pad in less than 2 hours. It can also give you symptoms of anemia."

Thedoctormedical , united states - Menorrhagia is a medical term when a person experiences menstrual bleeding that lasts more than 7 days. This condition is a common disorder that occurs in women. About 1 out of every 20 women experiences menstrual bleeding disorders.

Some bleeding can be so severe that it's possible to change a tampon or pad in less than 2 hours. It can also mean that you will end up with a lump the size of a quarter or even larger than normal.
Menorrhagia can cause anemia if not treated properly. In addition, heavy bleeding can affect sleep patterns, causing lower abdominal pain, and making pleasurable activities a burden. If you experience weakness and interference with daily life due to heavy bleeding, you should discuss with your doctor how to deal with this disorder.

Experience Menorrhagia, These Are the Symptoms

Before discussing the diagnosis of menstrual bleeding disorders, you must know the symptoms that arise when someone has menorrhagia. The following are some of the symptoms that may occur in someone with the disorder:

Experiencing menstrual flow that seeps through one or more pads every hour for several hours straight.

Need to double pads to control the menstrual flow that comes out.

Need to change pads at night.
Have menstrual periods that last more than 7 days.
Have menstrual flow with blood clots the size of a quarter or larger than normal.

Having a heavy menstrual flow that makes it difficult for you to do activities.

Constant pain in the lower abdomen during menstruation.
Fatigue, lack of energy, or shortness of breath.

Here's How to Diagnose It

The doctor will most likely ask about your medical history and menstrual cycles that occur. You may be asked to keep a diary of the days when your period occurred and when it did not, including notes on how heavy the bleeding was and how many pads you needed to control it.

After that, your doctor will perform a physical exam and may recommend one or more tests or procedures such as:

Blood test. Your blood sample will be evaluated for iron deficiency or the occurrence of anemia and other conditions, such as thyroid disorders or blood clotting disorders.
pap test In this test, cells from your cervix are collected and tested for infection, inflammation or changes that may be cancerous or may lead to cancer.
Endometrial biopsy. Your doctor will take tissue samples from the inside of the uterus to be examined by a pathologist if there is a problem.
Ultrasound. This imaging method uses sound waves to produce images of a person's uterus, ovaries, and pelvis, so they can tell when something is wrong.
Based on the results of these initial tests, the doctor may also recommend further testing, including:
Sonohysterography. During this test, fluid is injected through a tube into the uterus through the vagina and cervix. Then, the doctor will use ultrasound to look for problems that occur in your uterine lining.
Hysteroscopy. This examination is carried out by inserting a thin instrument through the vagina and cervix into the uterus which allows your doctor to see the inside of the uterus. The point is to diagnose further disorders.
Also, a doctor can confirm the diagnosis of menorrhagia only after ruling out other menstrual disorders, medical conditions, or medications that might cause or worsen this condition.


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