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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

what are flat bones and their function

“Flat bone is a type of bone that consists of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone. Unlike other bones, flat bones are flat and not round. such as the skull and rib bones.”

Thedoctormedical, united states – Flat bones have marrow, but no bone marrow cavities. In addition, this bone is also thin, flat, and serves as a point of attachment for muscles or protection of internal organs.

What Are the Parts of Flat Bones?

Flat bones in joints and bones have a structure that is different from other types of bones. There are several layers of flat bone structure that distinguish them, including:

1. Periosteum

Periosteum is the outer layer of bone which contains blood vessels and nerves. Its function is to provide nutrition to the bones and maintain the continuity of the bone growth process.

2. Compact bone

Compact bone is a layer of bone beneath the periosteum. This type of bone is very hard and dense. Compact bone plays a role in providing strength and structural support to flat bones.

3. Spongy bone

Spongy bone is the innermost layer of flat bones. Despite its name "spongy bone," it actually has a lighter, more porous structure. The spongy structure of bone helps absorb sudden stress, such as a blow to the head. The flat bones of the skull also have unique structural features.

Unique Stitches on Flat Bones
Flat bones have meetings called sutures. It is a unique type of joint that differentiates this bone from other bones. Unlike most joints, sutures cannot move.

Also, the sutures don't fully come together until growth is complete, and they usually stop around the age of 20. This allows the brain to grow and develop during its infancy.

What are the Functions of Flat Bones?

Flat bones have several important functions in supporting the human skeletal system. Its functions include:

1. Protection of organs
One of its main functions is to protect the vital organs in the body. For example, the skull or cranium plays a role in protecting the brain . You can read the article Understanding the Functions and Parts of the Skull Bones in Humans to find out the parts and functions of these bones.

In addition, various flat bones around the eyes and nose also provide protection to the face. Furthermore, the ribs are responsible for protecting the heart and lungs. There is also a pelvic area that protects the bladder and uterus.

2. Production of blood cells
The process of making blood cells by the bone marrow is called haemopoiesis. Children and adults produce their own blood cells in different bones. In children, blood cell production occurs in long bones, such as the femur.

However, as we age, blood cell production begins in the flat bones of the skull and ribs.

3. Support body movement
This bone also plays a role in supporting body movements. These bones provide places for ligaments and tendons to attach. Ligaments are strong connective tissues that hold bones together. For example, the trapezoidal and conoid ligaments attach from the clavicle, a bone on the lower side of the neck, to a flat bone called the scapula or shoulder blade.

Meanwhile, tendons are another type of connective tissue that connects muscles to bones. Movement of the extremities and joints of the body would not function without the presence of the bones, ligaments and tendons that work together.

Other Bone Types
Apart from flat bones, there are several other types of bones in the human skeletal system, namely:

T. Long, develops mainly in long spaces, eg femur and upper arm bones.

T. Short, similarly developed in all three dimensions, like the carpus and tarsus bones.

T. Irregular which lacks dominant morphological elements, such as vertebrae.

It is important for you to know that bones stop growing when a person reaches their late teens or early twenties.

How Are Flat Bones Formed?
Flat bones are formed by a thin layer of spongy bone tissue that contains bone marrow. This spongy layer is then covered by two layers of cortical or compact bone tissue, one layer on each side. Examples of these parts include the shoulder blades, chest, and skull.

Conditions Associated with Flat Bones
Some conditions associated with flat bones are flat feet and tarsal coalitions. Flat feet occur when the normally curved part of the foot appears to be pulled inward. This condition can be caused by unusual flexibility or stiffness of the foot joints.

Meanwhile, tarsal coalition occurs when the leg bones fail to separate during fetal development. This condition may be a congenital defect or it can result from flat feet, injury or prolonged swelling.

What is the function of calcium for bones?
Calcium is a mineral that is very important for bone health. The body needs adequate calcium intake to maintain bone density and prevent the risk of osteoporosis.


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