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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

Things to know before cataract surgery

“Cataract surgery is the only way to remove cataracts. This procedure is done by removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with a new lens.

Thedoctormedical , united states – Cataract surgery is an effective medical procedure to treat cataracts. The procedure can be accomplished by removing the eye lens, and in most cases, replacing it with an artificial lens.

Cataracts are a disease that causes the lens of the eye to become cloudy and eventually interferes with vision. This condition makes it difficult for sufferers to distinguish colors and see bright objects due to double vision. Now, by performing cataract surgery, the eye lens can become clear again.

What is the Procedure for Performing Cataract Surgery?

The lens of a healthy eye should be clear and able to deflect (refract) light rays that enter the eye properly, so you can see clearly. However, cataracts can make these organs cloudy.

Having this eye disease can make you feel like you are looking through a foggy or dusty car windshield. It may look blurry, fuzzy, or lack of color.

Usually, cataracts most often occur in people who are old. That's because as we get older, the lens of the eye can become cloudy or foggy like a bathroom glass.

Well, the only way to get rid of cataracts is surgery. An ophthalmologist will recommend cataract surgery if it interferes with your vision, preventing you from doing your activities properly.

During the operation, your cloudy natural lens will be removed and replaced with a clear artificial lens. The lens is called an intraocular lens (IOL).

Here is the procedure:

1. Preparation

Before the operation takes place, you may need to undergo an ultrasound examination of the eye. This aims to estimate the shape and size of the artificial lens that will be installed in the eye during surgery. There are three types of lenses that can be attached to eyes with cataracts, namely monofocal lenses, toric lenses, and multifocal lenses.

There are several things you can do before cataract surgery. One of them is informing the doctor regarding the consumption of drugs or illness and fasting the day before undergoing surgery.

It is better if you ask your family to accompany you during the operation so that you can get moral support which can have a positive impact on the postoperative recovery process.

2. Cataract surgery procedure

The doctor will perform cataract surgery by destroying the cloudy lens using a special tool. Once crushed, the lens is removed from the eyeball and replaced with an artificial lens.

The doctor will then drip a special drug to widen the pupil, making it easier to carry out the operation. After the pupils dilate, local anesthesia is given to the eye or sedatives if the patient feels anxious before surgery.

During the operation, the patient remains awake and eyes open until the end of the procedure. Usually, cataract surgery takes 45-60 minutes.

If both eyes are affected by cataracts, the doctor only operates on one eye first. After the eye healed, the same procedure was performed on the other eye.

Cataract surgery is a safe procedure. However, just like any other medical procedure, cataract removal can also cause side effects.

Well, some of the risks that can occur include:

The eyelids droop.
Dislocation of the artificial lens.
Retinal detachment.
Glaucoma .
Secondary cataract.
Loss of sight.
However, don't worry because the side effects of cataract surgery above are rare and most can be treated successfully. Your risk of experiencing complications is higher if you have other eye diseases or serious medical conditions.

Sometimes, cataract surgery fails to improve vision because of underlying eye damage from another condition, such as glaucoma or macular degeneration.

So whenever possible, it may be helpful to evaluate and treat other eye problems first before making the decision to have cataract surgery.

3. After the operation procedure

The doctor will put a bandage on the eye of the patient after surgery. To help the recovery process, doctors give eye drops to avoid the risk of infection and inflammation.

You don't need to worry if after cataract surgery, your eyes feel uncomfortable and itchy. Don't scratch or rub it so as not to worsen the condition of the eye, it's better to put eye drops that the doctor prescribed.

What Happens after Cataract Surgery
However, how long does it take to fully recover after this procedure? Well, eight days after surgery, usually the condition of the eye has improved. Your vision may feel blurry at first as the eye heals and adjusts.

However, over time the colors appear brighter because you are looking through a new, clear lens. Usually, you need to see an eye doctor a day or two after surgery, then the following week.

Then, you can see a doctor after about a month to monitor healing.

To help recovery, here are some things you need to pay attention to after cataract surgery:

Avoid using soap or water directly into the eyes.
Don't rub or put pressure on your eyes. Your eye doctor may ask you to wear glasses or shields to protect your eyes.


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