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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

The Function of the Oral Cavity in the Human Digestive System

“The oral cavity is the first organ of the digestive tract. In this section, two digestive processes take place, namely chemical and mechanical. The oral cavity has the function of chewing, chemically processing food, and channeling food into the stomach.

Thedoctormedical, united states – The mouth has such an important role in life. Without this organ, it will be very difficult for you to chew food before it enters the stomach. In addition, communication is certainly more difficult without the oral cavity. However, do you know what are the parts and functions of the mouth?

Anatomy and Function of the Mouth in Humans

You can see directly the parts of the mouth starting from the forefront, namely the lips, teeth, gums, and tongue. However, the actual anatomy or parts of the mouth do not end there.

The structure of the mouth and its function is divided into two, namely the front or anterior and the back or posterior side. The back of the mouth is the meeting point between the front oral cavity and the esophagus which is the pathway for food to enter.

Anatomy of the front of the mouth (anterior)

The front side of the oral cavity , or another name for the vestibule, is the appearance of the mouth that you can see with your eyes when you look in the mirror. The front of the mouth can also move up and down, right and left, and close and open.

The mouth can make this movement because of the role of the lower jaw or mandibular jaw and facial expression muscles. This is especially the orbicularis oris muscle. If you look closely, this part has a shape similar to a horseshoe with parts like the following:

1. Lips

First is the lips which are divided into upper and lower lips. Both move each other and become the initial door of the oral cavity. Generally, the upper lip tends to be longer than the lower side. The lips themselves are a transition between the outer skin which is red and slightly dry in color and the mucous membrane which is moist and has a paler red color.

2. Teeth

The next part is the teeth, hard areas whose main function is to help crush and digest food that enters the body. Interestingly, the structure of this part of the oral cavity will continue to develop during this phase of human life.

Generally, children have 20 baby teeth when they are 3 years old. These early teeth will begin to fall out or fall out gradually when the child is six or seven years old. In their place, permanent teeth will appear.

Meanwhile, adults will have 32 permanent teeth. This number consists of 16 teeth each on the upper and lower side of the jaw.

3. Gums

Apart from the teeth, there are also visible gums in the form of soft tissue with a pink color. This part, which has a dense fiber and texture, has the main function of protecting the roots of the teeth and jaw bones. The gums also help the teeth stay in place and stay strong. Often times, gums that are not kept healthy will be very susceptible to various health problems. One of them is inflammation of the gums.

4. Tongue

Most of the human tongue organs are formed from muscles that make movements. The texture on the surface of the tongue looks rough due to the presence of taste buds or papillae as they are called.

Generally, the tongue has the main function of helping you taste the taste. Even so, the most important thing about the tongue is to help you speak and digest food.

5. Tonsils

Palatine tonsils or tonsils are right on the left and right behind the oral cavity. This area has an important function as a defense system in the body. When the body's resistance decreases, this area is then more susceptible to disease.

6. Uvula

Then, there is also the uvula, a small tissue that hangs on the roof of the mouth. You can see this area easily when you open your mouth. Even though it may look normal, in fact the vulva has an important function to help shift or move food from the mouth to the esophagus.

Anatomy of the back of the oral cavity (posterior)

The inner oral cavity or what is known as the oral cavity is the area covered by the curved rows of teeth, the upper and lower jaw. The internal anatomy is composed of various important organs, including the roof of the mouth, cheeks, salivary glands, and floor of the mouth.

1. Palate

This section is divided into two areas, namely the hard and soft palate. The full explanation is as follows.

Hard palate or hard palate. This section is formed from plates of bone to separate the oral cavity and nasal cavity. This area also consists of respiratory mucous membranes on the upper side, while the lower side consists of mucous membranes.
Soft palate or soft palate. This area is composed of muscles that have the main function as a valve. Its main function is to separate the cavity behind the nose and the back palate or nasopharynx with the airways and digestive tract or oropharynx.

2. Cheeks

Then, the cheeks are composed of a muscle called the buccinator. This muscle has a lining of the mucous membrane. The role of this muscle is what makes the inner cheek area always feel wet and slippery. When you chew food, the cheek muscles will work as a barrier to the food you are chewing so that it stays on the cheek arches.

3. Salivary glands

Salivary glands are located in almost all areas of the oral cavity. The large part of the salivary glands has three pairs, the following is an explanation.

parotid. Salivary glands which are on the upper side of the cheek and close to the ear. This gland has a function to drain saliva towards the back teeth and the upper jaw.
Submandibular. Located on the back of the lower jaw, with the main function of draining saliva in the lower teeth and surrounding areas.
Sublingual . The salivary glands are right on the underside of the tongue. This type of gland has the function of flowing saliva to all areas of the floor of the mouth or the lower surface of the mouth.

4. Floor of the mouth

The last part is the floor of the mouth. The majority of the anatomy of the oral cavity in this area is filled with tongue structures that you cannot see from the outside. In addition, this area is also composed of two pairs of large salivary glands, namely the submandibular and sublingualis.

In this inner cavity there is also a muscular diaphragm area which is composed of bilateral mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles. These two types of muscles have the function of pulling the larynx forward when you swallow food.

Functions of the Human Mouth

Broadly speaking, the mouth which is part of the anatomy of the human body has the most important function to help smooth communication and digestive processes. Here's the full explanation.

1. Digestion

The first function is to support the digestive system. This is because the mouth is the earliest organ of the human digestive system. The digestive process itself begins when food enters the mouth, is crushed by the teeth, and is moistened with the help of saliva or saliva.

Furthermore, the tongue actively pushes food towards the back of the mouth, into the esophagus, to the stomach and intestines. There are two types of digestion that occur in the oral cavity, namely chemical digestion and mechanical digestion.

Mechanical digestion occurs when you chew food and break it down into small pieces. Meanwhile, chemical digestion occurs when the salivary glands add enzymes to food for further breakdown.

2. Communication

The next function is to help smooth communication. Talking is a complicated process. This process begins when air flows from the area of the vocal cords on the side of the larynx, then the vocal cords will vibrate, so sound is formed.

The type of sound that comes out of course depends on how tight the vocal cords are and how strong the air is coming out. Simultaneously, the roof of the mouth and nose are also involved in this process.

Apart from these two functions, actually the human oral cavity also has a function as a channel for air to enter apart from the nasal cavity. For example, when you have a runny nose and stuffy nose.

The Importance of Maintaining Dental and Oral Health

Because it has a very important function, you must also maintain the cleanliness and health of this area. The goal, of course, is to protect you from various health problems.

Not only mouth and teeth, but other medical conditions that are more serious. You can read this article 4 Serious Diseases Triggered by Dental and Mouth Problems to find out what health problems can occur due to mouth and teeth.

How to? Certainly not difficult, really. You only need to do oral and dental care to the dentist regularly. Don't forget to brush your teeth twice a day, check with the dentist every 6 months, make sure your fluid intake is met, and don't smoke.


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