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Getting to Know the Body's Immune System: Definition, Components, & How It Works

 The immune system is the body's defense system to protect against various bad microorganisms that cause infection or disease. This system consists of various components and the way they work is complex.” Jakarta – The body's immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health by carrying out a series of defense mechanisms, such as recognizing and responding to foreign objects. The foreign objects in question are pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, germs, parasites and fungi. Some of these pathogens cause disturbances and damage to a person's body. Want to know more about how the immune system works? Check out the following information! Understanding the Body's Immune System The immune system is the body's defense system against attacks by foreign substances. In fact, foreign substances not only come from outside the body, such as pathogens, but are also found inside the body. Foreign substances originating from within the body are dead cells or cells

How to Calculate Normal Pulse Rate

"A normal pulse indicates that the heart organ in the body has done its job properly. Meanwhile, a pulse that is too fast or too slow can indicate certain conditions"

Thedoctormedical,  united states – The pulse indicates the frequency of the arteries (clean blood vessels) to expand and contract in one minute in response to the heartbeat. Through the pulse, you can also find out your heart rate, heart rhythm, and heart strength. So, knowing a normal pulse can tell whether the heart is working properly.

Number of Normal Heartbeats per Minute
Everyone's pulse rate will vary. This depends on several factors that can influence. In general, the following is the normal number of pulses per minute according to age:

Infants up to 1 year old: 100-160 times per minute.
Children aged 1-10 years: 70-120 times per minute.
Children aged 11-17 years: 60-100 times per minute.
Adults: 60-100 times per minute.
The normal pulse rate in infants and children tends to be higher than that of adults. This is because the need for blood supply in infants and children is greater, so  the heart  must work harder and beat faster to meet this need.

However, this heart rate can also change, depending on physical activity and the health conditions of infants and children. For example, a child who is very active, in pain, has a fever, or is dehydrated may show an increased pulse.

In addition, the normal pulse rate for adults aged 20-35 when exercising is around 95 to 170 beats per minute. Then, for ages 35 to 50 years between 85 to 155 times per minute.

How to Calculate Normal Pulse Rate?

Normal pulse measurement can be done at several points in the body, such as the wrist, the inside of the elbow, and the lower side of the neck. From all the points above, you can more easily find the pulse on the wrist. Here's how to measure a normal pulse via the wrist:

Rotate the wrist, so that the palm is facing up.
Place the index finger and middle finger on the inside of the wrist through which the arteries pass. Press the area until you feel a pulse. If you are measuring on the inside of your elbow or neck, place your fingers together and press until you find a pulse.
Count the pulse for 60 seconds. Or, you can count your pulse for 15 seconds and multiply by 4 to get your pulse per minute. You can repeat the pulse measurement if you are not sure about the results.
Pulse Rate and Risk of Arrhythmia
A normal pulse can also be a picture of the heart rate. Therefore, you need to watch out for a pulse that is too slow or too fast. Because, this condition can describe a disturbance in heart rhythm, such as an arrhythmia.

Arrhythmia is a problem with the heart's rhythm when it beats too fast, too slow, or irregularly. Here are some types of arrhythmias that you need to be aware of:

Bradycardia,  which is a condition when the heart beats slower or irregularly.
Heart block,  a condition in which the heart beats more slowly and can cause a person to faint.
Supraventricular tachycardia,  which is a condition where the heart beats abnormally fast.
Atrial fibrillation,  a condition in which the heart beats very fast even when it is resting.
Ventricular fibrillation,  a condition in which the heart beats too fast and irregularly. In severe cases, this condition can cause sudden loss of consciousness or death.
Arrhythmia can happen to anyone, both men and women. However, there are several factors that can increase the risk of developing this health problem, such as:

High blood pressure (hypertension).
Thyroid problems.
Have a history of heart disease.
Have a heart valve disorder.
Unhealthy lifestyle and eating.
Electrolyte problems in the body.
Currently in the recovery phase after undergoing heart surgery.

How to Maintain a Normal Pulse

In order to ensure a normal pulse, of course you have to know how to properly maintain it. Here are some things you can try:

1. Maintain ideal body weight

It's true, ideal body weight can help maintain a normal pulse. This is because, the heavier a person's body, of course, the body's burden when circulating blood becomes greater. Especially if you don't have enough muscle mass.

2. Exercise routine

You can also maintain a normal pulse with regular exercise. This is because an excessive heart rate can occur due to an unhealthy lifestyle. One of them is the lack of physical activity. 

So, start to do regular exercise, which is for about 150 minutes every week. Meanwhile, for strenuous activities, it's best not more than 75 minutes per week.

3. Control stress
Excessive anxiety can make the heart rate faster. Therefore, you should be able to control stress properly so that your pulse is maintained. You can do this through meditation or breathing exercises.


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